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Let's Take This Outside: Wilderness Therapy & Optimum Fitness

Updated: Apr 29

Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare, Adventure Wilderness & Physical Training Principles Danielle Chevalier. Revised May 2024.

  Sometimes called adventure therapy (AT), wilderness therapy (WT) or outdoor behavioral healthcare (OBH), these programs use the outdoors as therapy. Recognizing nature’s depth of benefits, the fitness industry is also taking training outdoors.3  


  1. (Kohl & Murray, 2012) (Buckworth & Dishman, 2002).

  2. (Brymer, Davids, & Mallabon, 2013) (Gladwell, Brown, Wood, Sandercock, & Barton, 2013).

  3. (Spears, 2017) (Twist & Shiels, 2011) (Webster, 2007).

  4. (Phillips, Sassaman, & Smoliga, 2012)

  5. (Werhan & Groff, 2005)

  6. (Russell, 2012)

  7. (Dawson & Russell, 2012)

  8. (Moote & Wodarski, 1997, p. 5)

  9. (Martin & McCullagh, 2011)

  10. (Jelalian, Mehlenbeck, Lloyd-Richardson, Birmaher, & Wing, 2006)

  11. (Blanchette, 2010)

  12. ( adventure activities, 2017)

  13. (Priest & Gass, 1997, pp. 77-83)

  14. (American Council on Execerise, 2010)

  15. (Ed: Bryant, C.D., & Green, D.J., 2011)

  16. (Phillips, Sassaman, & Smoliga, 2012)

  17. (DeMille, Comart, & Tucker, 2014)

  18. (Green, 2015)

  19. (Blanchette, 2010, p. 43)

  20. (DeMille, Comart, & Tucker, 2014)

  21. (American Council on Exercise, 2010)

  22. (Ed: Bryant, C.D., & Green, D.J., 2011)

  23. (Ed: Bryant, C.D., & Green, D.J., 2011) (American Council on Exercise, 2010)

  24. (Ewert, 2014, p. 161)

  25.  (Shooter, Sibthorp, & Paisley, 2009, p. 70)

  26.  (Nathanson, Young, & Young, 2015, p. 57)

  27. (Campbell, et al., 2015, p. 41)

  28. ( adventure activities, 2017)

  29. (Ewert, 2014, p. 161) (Blanchette, 2010, pp. 74-76) (Moote & Wodarski, 1997, p. 6)

  30. (Tucker, Widmer, Faddis, & Randolph, 2016)


It is no secret that being physically active improves both mental and physical health. Science supports the notion1

Outdoor recreation scholars and eco psychologists have also proven that exercising in nature further enhances the benefits.2 

 But how is the outdoor recreation field furthered by the latest findings in exercise science?

The need for personal trainers to be educated on the training needs and the language of climbing and other outdoor sports to better serve them is growing4 Shouldn’t OBH facilitators be educated on the language and basics of health and fitness?

While OBH programs are designed to provide a physical challenge to produce positive health benefits5, drawing the line between too much and too little physical challenge is complicated. Physical training principles should not be an afterthought left to the personal preference of individual adventure therapy facilitators.

Someone on the team should have a base knowledge of fitness training principles, health components, and exercise science so that programs reduce their incidences of injury.

This book attempts to give a basic understanding of these training principles and to answer the question: How do wilderness therapy programs incorporate these health & fitness guidelines?

Why Wilderness, Outdoor and Adventure?

Nature provides unique opportunities for physical activity by providing

Environmental Affordances 

Termed in 2013 by wilderness adventure researchers Eric Brymer, Keith Davids, and Liz Mallabon, ""p193.

Each different element, a climbable feature or a varied surface and such are affordances: opportunities for physical action that can be programmed to have more and less challenge.

Each action has the potential to be “an expression that can improve physical and or mental health”.

Assessing whether a physical challenge is optimum requires having some language and criteria to do so. As will be shown here, physical training principles can easily be applied to OBH/WT/AT.

The concurrent model for Adventure Therapy acknowledges four components to a program: Nature, the Active Self, the Group, and Reflection6

The 4 components of Adventure Therapy


The great outdoors

Active Self

physical agency


socializing with others


thinking about how it went and what's next

I'm not going to go into the value of Nature here. I'll assume it's a given. I will Let the mountain speak for itself.

Inherent in the component of Active Self is that participants are physically challenged.

We'll consider Reflection in a later chapter.

The other relevant component is the Group. The Group teaches pacing, encouragement, support and respecting participants learning comfort zones.

Participants may have low levels of base strength at the beginning of a program, but working together as a team, everyone expands their skills and builds self-efficacy.

This book will show how your programming can best heed health and fitness professional modalities.

First, it will look at the background of OBH and of physical training principles and the components of health & fitness.

Second, addressing metabolic pathways for using energy as it relates to OBH standards.

Lastly looking at the kinetic chain, how we can prevent pain, reduce injury and how the individual and teams can balance challenge and skill.


Background/Sharing Interdisciplinary Language for Outdoor Recreation:

What's your intention? Providers may focus more or less on a spectrum from either pure recreation, as educator, as facilitator for personal growth development, or as therapeutic facilitator 7





< simply for fun

also for learning


healing >

Learning by doing is an important tenet on every part of that spectrum and “adventure-based activities and programs operate from the model of experiential learning”8

Whether we are having fun- "pure Recreation", learning about the environment "educational", improving our selves "growth" or using nature for healing purposes "therapy" OBH/AT/WT always means actually doing with the body in space.

Dr John McCullagh & Peter Martin looking more in depth at the differences between physical learning and outdoor education compared physical educators-PE teachers and outdoor educators. Both teach experiential knowledge thru physical activity. Both set up, encourage, and facilitate lifelong learning.

Outdoor educators in addition to everything that physical educators do, teach about and contend with the environment9

What then is expected of the adventure therapy professional, who falls at the end of this spectrum scale? Adventure therapy practitioners use adventure activities explicitly as treatment intervention for behavioral, social or psychological problems 10

The outdoor educator is expected to teach physical education in addition to environmental education, but in therapeutic recreation the licensed OBH provider is expected to have mental health professionals on their team as well 11

Adding mental health to the demands doesn't mean dropping the importance of physical considerations. In fact they are intimately integrated. My point is that we need basics of Health & Fitness in each of the pure recreation-education-personal growth and therapeutic spectrum.

Whether your planning for yourself or others, consider your intention but ultimately, and regardless of intention your health & fitness matters.

The Association for Experiential Education (AEE), have developed guidelines for practitioners across the spectrum. They state: adventure programs “use physical activity to teach responsibility, cooperation, relationships, social skills, and resiliency”12

Priest and Gass also clarified competency areas and specific technical skills for leadership in adventure programming. They divided activity instruction into the categories of:

  • backcountry travel

  • rock-climbing

  • mountaineering

  • challenge/ropes course + group initiation

  • caving

  • paddling

  • bicycling

  • cross-country skiing.

In each of these categories, except backcountry travel, instructors are expected to “assess clients overall physical fitness and psychological readiness for participation”13

If they are expected to assess fitness levels, then they should have the necessary fitness concepts and terms to do so appropriately, even if it adds an extra layer of demands for the team.

By understanding the principles of volume, specificity, progressive overload, and reversibility we can see how OBH/AT/WT do challenge safely, though it may be more intuitive, and the terminology is not necessarily yet a part of their dialect. But it should be.

Principles of Fitness Training:

These 5 key principles of training are Volume, Intensity, Specificity, Progressive Overload, and Reversibility can improve clarity, safety and simplicity in programming.

VOLUME is how many total reps over the course of a day, days or weeks.

Volume is the total whole of frequency, intensity, type, and length of time an activity is performed. The purpose is a measure to help gauge needed recovery times, and decide what activities should follow.

Intensity: how hard are you pushing within the task- easy, mild, medium, high intense

talk test, level of fatigue

Specificity is the idea that if you practice something, anything, you will improve your capacity to continue doing so.

SPECIFICITY means doing the thing or something similar to the "thing" if you want to get good.

Reversibility, sometimes referred to as the use it or lose it principle, shows us that over time if you do not practice certain skills, though you may cognitively understand how to, you lose the physical capacity to do them.

For example, you may have biked 20 miles a day in the summer, now it’s winter and you still know how to ride a bike, but you do not have the physical stamina do so in a day. If you haven’t kept up or haven’t been doing another activity, or combination of activities that is similarly taxing, then demanding as much physically will cause damage.

Unless you’ve been keeping your muscles strong through biking (specificity) or using the same muscle groups in other activities, it’s not possible to do so safely.

Progressive Overload is that we gradually increase the challenge so that we have maximum gains in strength, endurance, and flexibility without doing more harm than good. OBH facilitators use these principles in planning without necessarily having the same language.

PROGRESSIVE OVERLOAD: step by step we improve incrementally gaining = +10%/week


Physical challenge is a big part of adventure therapy and OBH programs, instructors need to know the fitness principles of

  1. Intensity-How Hard

  2. Volume - How much total work /activity

  3. Specificity - what body movements are you actually incorporating?

  4. Reversibility - how long has it been, if ever since they've done it?

  5. Progressive overload - has there been enough rest & recovery time in btw and are you slowly building incrementally and optimally pushing limits?











Health Components of Fitness Training

There are also 5 Key HEALTH components that every BODY and certainly every health care provider should be very familiar with. It’s important to understand both the fitness principles and the health components, each of which can be harmed or helped in adventure activities.

The fitness components of health are cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition.

Cardiovascular endurance is the capacity for your heart to move blood through your body efficiently.

Muscular strength refers to your onetime maximum capability for a muscle (or group).

Muscular endurance is the ability, (not necessarily at max capacity) over time. Muscles work best together when they are optimally flexible. A muscle that is too tight cannot function properly. This is the component of flexibility.

Body composition refers to the ratio of muscle mass to fat mass. Both are necessary but it’s important to have more muscle mass for health.

There are also fitness components of skill that should be built on within a foundation of health fitness components14 They are agility, speed, power, & balance.

Adventure activities require fitness skills, it can be dangerous to push physical limits without understanding foundational health components and how they impact the capacity for fitness skills.


Metabolic Pathways & Programming Standards

OBH standards make sure participants are properly fueled for recovery. You'll see how by first looking at the body fuel system and then how OBH programs are designed.

There are three metabolic pathways that your working muscles use to access energy to function. They are: #1. creatine phosphate and #2. glycogen stored in muscles (both anaerobic) respectively used for efforts under 30 seconds and efforts lasting between 30sec and 2 min.

The third mechanism for getting energy to the working muscles is circulating blood from the cardiovascular system (aerobic-no air/O2). Your heart pumps blood and also fuel throughout your body- it needs also to be pumped thru your lungs to be O2 activated by your breathing expanding lungs.

Whenever you move your body for more than two minutes at a time YOUR energy demands increases. That means for any effort over 2 min. in length you are conditioning your heart muscles and increasing your metabolic demands 15

Different activities have varying ratios of demand type. For example, climbing requires relatively more anaerobic capacity than other activities16 Regardless, all activities require refilling stores, which means getting the necessary food in your body.

Fueling for recovery is critical. As is screening for potential heart attack risk factors and carefully designing progression of programs so the cardiorespiratory system itself builds strength without being overwhelmed by demands.

Licensed OBH organizations are required to have participants get medical exams prior to program start, to provide weekly nurse check-ups while on trips, and to have any medical problems referred out to a physician17

Screenings for cardio risk factors are used in OBH by physicians who perform pre-participation medical exams for participants18 State standards for OBH mandate that programs have:

  1. Individualized treatment plans.

  2. Regular medical check-ups.

  3. Supervision by licensed mental health professionals.

  4. Safety Procedures.

  5. Nutrition requirements19

Having these mandates in place helps assure participants are physically challenged appropriately and get the proper nourishment so their bodies can get stronger.

In Utah the licensed OBH is required to provide a minimum of 3000 kcal, with additional increase depending on increase in volume per day and weather/climate stress. Underweight participants get extra protein20

Steven DeMille, Casey Comart, and Anita Tucker looked at how OBH participants’ body composition changed over the course of treatment programs. They were able to show gains in muscle mass for most participants.

By measuring muscles mass before, during, and at the end of treatment programs a standard for healthy outcomes in OBH can be set. In their study they looked at more than 2000 OBH participants in different organizations, the average treatment lasting 73 days, the main activity intervention being trekking for an average of 4 or 5 days a week and 3 to 10 miles a trek.

The group who were underweight at the start of the program, had a mean gain of 7.5 pounds muscle mass. Their article highlights some potential ways for monitoring that could be used to prevent overtraining.


Matching Challenge to Ability & Understanding Kinetic Chain Stability

The human body works best when complimentary muscles and muscle groups work together and are optimally both strong and flexible. Without adhering to these principles, trauma and pain to the muscular skeletal system will increase.

Most often its lower back, knee or shoulder and neck pain21 If you or an activity instructor (or someone else on the team) does not know this, there is an increased risk of doing more physical harm.

Understanding the kinetic chain basics of hip/lower back stability, shoulder girdle stability, balance of strength and flexibility in muscle groups helps to prevent injuries.

The kinetic chain foundation goes from bottom to top, beginning at the feet, then to ankle and all the way to the top of the head. If one joint, muscle group, or level in the chain is off then those that follow will be set off proper course22

There is an optimum where the body can be performing at maximum effort without having muscular skeletal damage and ensuing pain.

Kinetic chain stability refers mainly to the core base of strength around the hips, where the gluteus muscles and thighs appropriately support the skeletal body and to the core base of strength at the shoulder girdle, where the mid and upper back muscles appropriately strengthened, set a foundation for the surrounding smaller muscle groups.

Mobility refers to the ability for a joint to move through its appropriate range. If certain muscles are too tight then mobility is hindered, increasing the risk of injury. This is kinetic chain stability and mobility23

Every individual body is unique. An individual in their own body can best gauge their own limits. But if someone on the OBH team is not aware that having one muscle group over trained in comparison to another will increase the risks of pain and injury how are they able to prevent or even talk about pain with participants?

Without this basic kinetic chain knowledge OBH can over push clients causing more pain.

An article looking at therapeutic outcomes of adventure education experiences for military veterans published in Ecopsychology stated that overall higher challenge levels seems to maximize results24

With an effort to maximize challenge how does OBH balance pushing physical limits without causing injuries? It’s done by having a team approach for program design, by matching client needs to activities and by being careful to use risk and challenge appropriately.

Programs are designed around a team from many disciplines including sport specific instructors, wilderness medical staff and mental health professionals.

Shooter, Sibthorp, & Paisley designed a model for adventure programs that puts the organization’s mission and goals at the center and where the necessary skills required to safely implement a program are filled by a variety of employees from different backgrounds. They divide necessary competencies into the categories of technical skills, interpersonal skills, and judgment skills25.

Not all employees need to understand the full scope of anatomy and physiology in order to have physically challenging courses. It can still be a part of the core principles through the use of varied staff.

What that means for you is that You don't personally need to know every aspect-Build your team. Find support and work with others who can help you develop your weaknesses.

Keep in mind that in a Wilderness Programming setting, expeditions are often tailored to weakest member in moment and a graduated increase in pack weight for example or using hiking poles if necessary to take the weight of hips26

Another way that protects participants from physical trauma is by using pre-participation medical exams and partnering with wilderness medicine professionals. Wilderness medicine shows it’s important to match fitness to skill.

The key of pre-participation exams (PPE) is to determine between actual fitness level and expected demands and to educate the individual or agency if necessary27

Pre-participation medical exams can be used less as a screening tool and more as communication and education tools.

Programs choose an activity based on client assessment, needs and proper sequencing to maximize benefits.

AEE guidelines for adventure programming highlight two important criteria that should always apply to activity choice. It should be based on

  1. The limitation to practitioner’s inherent ability in the activity

  2. The application of choice of activity must be matched with client assessment and needs28

This relates back to the particular competencies for specific activities. For example, in either rock climbing or paddling there are sport specific skills and abilities that the facilitator can only use as intervention if they are knowledgeable and competent themselves.

In addressing client needs use challenge and risk strategically. Two key ways that they do this is through what is termed challenge by choice and by properly sequencing to build on strength skills29

Challenge by choice recognizes that people have different comfort levels in terms of learning and beginning new activities. If people are pushed outside of their comfort zones they can learn and begin new behaviors.

However, if they are pushed too far outside their comfort zone, beyond their learning zone, into areas where they have too much fear, then more harm will come than good.

Challenge by choice allows the individual to decide where their comfort levels stand, and sequencing allows for safe progressive overload. This is also a great opportunity to teach the participant strategies for learning and creating their own boundaries, listening to their body’s needs and challenging themselves without pushing too far.

OBH also uses the principle of flow in program planning and implementation30 Flow happens when maximum challenge is appropriately matched with skill level.

In a study on adventure therapy used in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy, compared to the control group, adventure therapy showed an increase in locus of control which increased levels of physical activity (Jelalian, Mehlenbeck, Lloyd-Richardson, Birmaher, & Wing, 2006, p. 32). This is compatible with the American Council on Exercise views on getting people active (American Council on Execerise, 2010). Leaders with experience can see how fitness levels impact ability for skill development. However, having certain measurement tools allows them to check their intuition and back up what they might be sensing. One particular tool is ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Instructors can use it as education and as a way of measuring for safety. It can be used to assess participants’ physical challenge intensity levels and as a way to open up the conversation about flow, challenge by choice, or mindful awareness of the body’s senses. Three levels of physiological intensity are correlated with personal discomfort levels as it relates to how hard a person is physically challenging themselves. The three levels: movement, discomfort tolerance and noxious pain avoidance (Buckworth & Dishman, 2002, p. 269), are then applied to a 10 or 12 point scale (American Council on Execerise, 2010) whereby the active individual and activity facilitator can moderate by staying within a certain range.


In OBH it important to “design programs with the amount of daily physical challenge required to produce positive health” (Werhan & Groff, 2005, p. 26). OBH can do this by partnering with wilderness medicine physicians and by aligning with health and fitness professionals. The American Council on Exercise (ACE) personal training guidelines are consistent with OBH values. They are:

1. Create Mastery. This means working with clients where they are, acknowledging their baseline strength and building up. For OBH it can mean focusing on AEE building on strengths and sequencing. 2. Provide Consistent and Clear Feedback. For OBH: in a metanalysis on adventure program evaluation a recommendation as an area to focus on in future process studies, it was suggested that “adventure programs increase the amount and quality of feedback that is vital to the experiential learning process” (Hattie, 1997, p.75). 3.Include client in all aspects of program design. This could be possible with more formal feedback-informed treatment program design “FIT” (Dobud, 2017) (Russell, 2017). 4. Empower with perception of control over their own participation and actually give client control. OBH challenge by choice even within captive participant situations. 5. Engage client ownership and involvement in the program by teaching self-sufficiency and autonomy to facilitate intrinsic motivation.

OBH fuels for recovery, works with the group by making pacing to the ‘weakest’ a priority, plans for proper sequencing, and uses a strength-based approach to instruction. Although pain and repetitive stress injuries are addressed using onsite medical staff visits and the pre-participation exam, someone on the team should understand kinetic chain stability and mobility to properly assess fitness levels, realize how specific activities impact pain, and to further prevent overuse injuries.

Daily Rhythm, Energy & Movement Remedy Options      


Actions I would like to do in the next weeks. 















Monday Mv px

 5min Breath 

Walk Attn to Feet

Sun Sal or Joint Warm Up.

No phone before 10 am

Self Massage /Stretch 5min

Glute vs Legs on belly- or other- ex/px time

A Breath/

meditation Nap

 Music Dance 1 song

Guided meditation audio

Dinner before 6pm

Yoga = Gratitude, Intention + Connection to Source. Breath Body Union.

Use this as a reminder chart & tracking tool. Change the small actions on the left as they suit your needs and goals. You can print it and put it on the fridge or bathroom mirror. Use a highlighter each day -in the morning or at the end of the day to note points as you achieved them.. Sometimes crossover. The goal is NOT to do it all but see when, where & what exactly works, is easy and joyful. After a few weeks you can evaluate and change accordingly for the next one. Add or subtract. Take what works and leave the rest.

Basic Health, Fitness & Longevity Recommendations:

  Again this is to take the next couple months to work towards. Slowly, carefully, steadily making progress while maintaining allllll the other things you’re juggling. This will, in the end, give you more energy. Key is KAIZEN, the idea of 1% progress consistently over time. Small tweeks helps prevent burn out & injuries. We’re in it for the long run. Make a more formal periodization plan based on your results  explorations with bullet charting like the one above. Make an appointment with me when you are ready to work on it together.




How Long 

How Often

Ideas for Plan of Action


Example: Arboretum Walk, Dance or bike etc.= Whole Body Rhythmic Movement -Lead Dogs Cardio

20+min IN 10+ min increments 

5-7 days

 Attention to Ex Px, careful, notice what your body is doing, protect vulnerable areas, challenge attentively and slowly.

Hard or Soft

10min +

Up to 7days

Breath Practice



5-7 days

Start The Day Right: Hydration, Gratitude, Poop

Soft Easy. About  the consistency and size of a ripe banana


Sun Salutations or warming up every joint in the body  



5-7 days

Belly Floor Ex Px-corrective exercise and attentive strengthening in weak area ei: lying on belly activating glutes first before and after legs    Hard


1-2 days

Self-Massage: with or w/out oil. Soft

Lengthening and extra tight areas and muscles. Foam rolling, opposite muscle activation.


Up to 7 days

Building Strength & Stamina ideas: lifting; wall push ups and variations of calisthenics; squats perfect form; painting; bird dogs…   Hard

Resistance exercises or activities 8-12 reps 1-3 sets all muscle groups.

1-2 days/week

+Greens & Veg

Half your plate

Eating Times

About 10-14 hrs fast time- ei when sleeping 

4hrs btw meals water only.

Bed Time Range

8hrs Deep Sleep

Limiting Screen Time

Sitting in Silence

You decide

Sense Organ Care







Below  are the keys we visit in our 1:1 sessions and in group movement classes. Some of these may not make sense yet. First is learning which can take a little more effort and time but with practice they become habit-through muscle memory. 


Soft is your gentle movement and anything that is easy for you in the moment. Because of changes in demands, changes in conditioning status, acute injuries, cycling hormones, lack of sleep and general stresses of daily life from things that are beyond our control what is easy one day for one person may not be on another. That’s where the keying in to your body’s limits and needs becomes central. We want to strike the balance between self-care and self-discipline. Tuning into the body is how we do it. Soft practices help you align the subtleness. Some examples: Breath led movement. Joint warm up…Generally Qi Gong and Tai Chi 

Breath Options:

Nadis shodena

Inhale down -Exhale elevator up slowly

360 *

4Q Pelvis

Back Body Breath *

Side Expansion *

Mt Slide/Climb

Mantra Breath

Whim Hoff

Box Squeeze Exhale

Sun Salutations

  • Mt

  • Cat Cow

  • Breath

  • Stance of Power

  • Pada Bhandas=whole foot

  • Stack Torso

  • Dwn Dog-pedal

  • WI- low or high

  • WII

  • Chair

  • Childs -lengthen along side body

 Self Massage-Foam Rolling, Stretch

Focus on: different directions, different depth -Push + pull, side ways, up & dwn, deep and superficial. 

Feel your way w/ what feels good. 


  • Stacking Joints-knees, hips, torso, head

  • Stance of Power-Feet

  • Heart as alter to heaven

  • Chest high w/ ribs hugged in*

  • Glute Max Activation vs legs

  • Whole belly hugging (TVA): lower, mid & upper

  • Bridges Abd/ Add vs Rotation  

  • Rib expansion -360 breathing*

  • Low back protection-awareness of pelvic tilt : back, forward or neutral

  • Lengthen hips down  through torso tall to back of the head- neck long 

  • Lower and mid Trap Act w/ upper + mid TVA + Ser. Ant.*

  • Hip hinge w/ hands-lengthened torso vs Squat


What do YOU enjoy that is Whole Body Rhythmic Movement?


Training for Muscle strength requires 2 times / week for optimum gains. You only need sufficient resistance to fatigue the muscles- once you feel that- take a break or move on to the next. Depending on how hard you push your body (total Volume) and what else you’re doing in your activities of daily living, you may need 24-72 hrs of recovery time for muscles to repair and come back stronger. With time and conditioning what was once hard will become easy. We use it or lose it. In order to maintain strength the muscles need to be pushed at least once / week for said task. Start with 8-12 reps. If you can perform more than 12 then move onto something more challenging on a HARD day. If you can’t do 8 then consider that it may be too taxing for your body -you should try something easier, or use supports- wall , floor…take it down a notch. 


Specificity: training same muscles in similar ways. Climbing stairs to train for climbing a mountain or climbing a mountain to climb a mountain. 

Intensity: how hard are you pushing within the task- easy, mild, medium, high intense

Volume: Total length, time and intensity

Sets: cycle of reps

Reps: 1 exercise

Muscle Strength: capacity of 1 muscle action

Muscle Endurance: Capacity for repeated reps over time

Cardiovascular Endurance: Ability for heart muscle to work overtime

Flexibility/Mobility: Ability for muscles and fascia (surrounding tissues) to act within safe range of motion

Body Composition: Muscle to Fat Ratio-proportional =optimum metabolism. Not too much. Not too little. Safer more fat in thighs and butt vs front belly.

WAYS To Move:



  • Soft, easy ,slow,long

  • Uphill

  • Fast

  • Sideways

  • On uneven ground

  • Through mall

  • Parking lot

  • To the store


Yard clean up


Intro Bullet List Google Doc.

Bibliography adventure activities. (2017, October 26). Retrieved from adventure activities

American Council on Execerise. (2010). ACE personal trainer manual. SanDiego,CA: American Council on Exercise.

Blanchette, A. W. (2010, Sept 14). The clinical theory and practice of outdoor behavioral healthcare. Regent University. Virginia Beach,VA.

Brymer, E., Davids, K., & Mallabon, L. (2013). Understanding the psychological health and well-being benefits of physical activity in nature: an ecological dynamics analysis. Ecopsychology, 189-197.

Buckworth, J., & Dishman, R. K. (2002). Exercise psychology. Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics.

Campbell, A. D., Davis, C., Paterson, R., Cushing, T. A., Ng, P., Peterson, C. S., . . . McIntosh, S. E. (2015). Preparticipation evaluation for climbing sports. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 40-46.

Caulkins, M. C., White, D. D., & Russell, K. C. (2006). The role of physical exercise in wilderness therapy for troubled adolescent women. Journal of Experiential Education, 18-37.

Dawson, C. P., & Russell, K. C. (2012). Wilderness experience programs: a state-of-the knowledge summery. USDA Forest Service Proceedings.

DeMille, S. M., Comart, C., & Tucker, A. (2014). Body composition changes in an outdoor behavioral healthcare program. Ecopsycology, 174-182.

Ed: Bryant, C.D., & Green, D.J. (2011). ACE'S essentials of exercise science for fitness professionals. SanDiego, CA: American Council on Exercise.

Ewert, A. (2014). Military veterans and the use of adventure education experiences in natural environments for theraputic outcomes. Ecopsychology, 155-164 .

Gladwell, V. F., Brown, D. K., Wood, C., Sandercock, G. R., & Barton, J. L. (2013). The great outdoors:how a green exercise environment can benefit all. Extreme Physiology & Medicine, 2:3,1-7.

Green, G. A. (2015). Setting, structure, and timing of the preparticipation examination: the wilderness adventure consultation. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 4-9.

Jelalian, E., Mehlenbeck, R., Lloyd-Richardson, E. E., Birmaher, V., & Wing, R. R. (2006). 'Adventure therapy' combined with cognitive-behavioral treatment for overweight adolescents. International Journal of Obesity, 31-39.

Kohl, H. W., & Murray, T. D. (2012). Foundations of physical activity and public health. Windsor, ON: Human Kinetics.

Martin, P., & McCullagh, J. (2011). Physical education & outdoor education:complementary but discrete disciplines. Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education, 67-78.

Moote, G. T., & Wodarski, J. S. (1997). The aquisition of life skills through adventure-based activities and programs: a review of the literature. Adolescence, 143-177.

Nathanson, A. T., Young, J. J., & Young, C. (2015). Pre-particpation medical evaluation for adventure and wilderness watersports. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 55-62.

Phillips, K. C., Sassaman, J. M., & Smoliga, J. M. (2012). Optimizing rock climbing performance through sport-specific strength and conditioning. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 1-18.

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